LEA Referencing Style

Leonardo Electronic Almanac follows the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition for references. Although the information below is not exhaustive, it illustrates the referencing style used by Leonardo Electronic Almanac. Please strictly adhere to these guidelines for your notes and references.

Books and Exhibition Catalogs

Author(s) [first name or initials followed by last name], Title of Book in Italics (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date), Page Numbers.
NOTE: If available, other pertinent information should be included e.g. editors, translators, edition, date of original publication. Include page numbers of specific quotes.


Daniel Dennett, Brainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology (Montgomery, VT: Bradford Books, 1978), 120.

Jean Baudrillard, Paroxysm: Interviews with Philippe Petit, trans. Chris Turner (London: Verso, 1998), 65-66.

Martin Rieser and Andrea Zapp, eds., New Screen Media: Cinema/Art/Narrative (London: British Film Institute, 2002), xxv.

Chapter in a single author book


Brendan Phibbs, “Herrlisheim: Diary of a Battle,” in The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeone in World War II (Boston: Little, Brown, 1987), 117-163.

Contribution to a multiauthor book


Anne Carr and Douglas J. Schuurman, “Religion and Feminism: A reformist Christian Analysis,” in Religion, Feminism, and the Family, ed. Anne Carr and Mary Stewart Van Leeuwen (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996), 30.

M. Gillings, “Virtual archaeologies and the hyper-real,” in Virtual Reality in Geography, ed. P. Fisher and D. Unwin (London and New York: Taylor & Francis, 2002), 17.

Journals and Periodicals

Author(s) [first name or initials followed by last name], “Title of Article,” Name of Periodical in Italics Volume Number, Issue Number (Date): Pages.


Mikhail A Lebedev and Miguel A.L. Nicolelis, “Brain-machine Interfaces: Past, Present and Future,” TRENDS in Neurosciences 9, no. 29 (2006): 536.

H. P. Grice, “Meaning,” Philosophical Review 66, no. 2 (1957): 377-388.

D. Kimura and E. Hampson, “Cognitive pattern in men and women is influenced by fluctuations in sex hormones,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 3, no. 2 (1994): 57-61.

P. A. Ubel, C. L. Bryce, L. A. Siminoff, A. L. Caplan and R. M. Arnold, “Pennsylvania’s voluntary benefits program: Evaluating an innovative proposal for increasing organ donation,” Health Affairs 19, no. 5 (2000): 206-211.

S. Benford, D. Rowland, M. Flintham, R. Hull, J. Reid, J. Morrison, K. Facer and B. Clayton, “‘Savannah’: Designing a Location-Based Game Simulating Lion Behavior,” in Proceedings of ACM Advanced Computer Entertainment (ACE 2004), Singapore, (July 2004).

Special Issues


Alice Conley, “Fifth-Grade Boys’ Decisions about Participation in Sports Activities,” in “Non-subject-matter Outcomes of Schooling,” ed. Thomas L. Good, special issue, Elementary School Journal 99, no. 5 (1991): 131-146.

Online journals

Russell S. A. Brinkworth, Eng-Leng Mah and David C. O’Carroll, “Bioinspired Pixel-wise Adaptive Imaging,” in Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ed. Said F. Al-Sarawi, January 4, 2007, (accessed November 20, 2009).

E. Champion, “Applying Game Design Theory to Virtual Heritage Environments,” in Grapphite 2003, Proceedings of the 1st international conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques in Australasia and South East Asia, Melbourne, Australia, (February 2003), (accessed July 10, 2007).

Online Books


J. Sirosh, R. Miikkulainen and J. A. Bednar, “Self-Organization of Orientation Maps, Lateral Connections, and Dynamic Receptive Fields in the Primary Visual Cortex,” in Lateral Interaction in the Cortex: Structure and Function, ed. J. Sirosh, R. Miikkulainen, and Y.Choe (Austin, TX: UTCS Neural Networks Research Group, 1996), (accessed August 27, 2001).

Magazines and Newspapers


David Cohen, “Inside Damien Hirst’s Factory,” The Evening Standard, August 30, 2007,’s+factory/ (accessed September 19, 2009).

Hugh Schofield, “New Internet Piracy Law Comes into Effect in France,” BBC News, December 31, 2009, (accessed January 1, 2010).

Email Messages/Snail Mail Correspondences


Sonya Rapoport, e-mail message to author, April 30, 2005.



Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000-2010: A Decade of Outreach,” Evanston Public Library, (accessed July 18, 2010).

Golan Levin’s official Web Site, “Interview for Victoria & Albert Exhibition by Louise Shannon,” September, 2009, (accessed February 10, 2010).

Electronic Journals


Mark A. Hlatky et al., “Quality of Life and Depressive Symptoms,” Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (2002), (accessed December 1, 2010).



The African Queen, dir. John Huston, from a novel by C.S. Forester, adapted by James Agee (1951).

Mark Twain, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, from The Writings of Mark Twain, Volume XIII, Harper & Brothers (1912), Copyright 1884, Samuel L. Clemens.

Deliverance, dir. John Boorman, written by James Dickey (1972).

Apocalypse Now, dir. Francis Ford Coppola, screenplay by John Milius. Francis Ford Coppola (1979).

Conference Lectures, Keynotes and Papers

A paper included in the published proceedings of a meeting may be treated as an individual contribution to a multiauthor book. If the paper is published in a journal is treated as an article. See respective examples above.


Stacy D’Erasmo, “The Craft and Career of Writing” (lecture, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, April 25, 2000).

Clifford Nass, “Why Researchers Treat On-Line Journals Like Real People” (keynote address, annual meeting of the Council of Science Editors, San Antonio, TX, May 6-9, 2010).

T.C. O’Guinn, “Touching Greatness: Some Aspects of Star Worship in Contemporary Consumption” (paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York, 1987).

Citations taken from secondary sources


Meyer, Schapiro, “The Still Life as a Personal Object – A Note on Heidegger and van Gogh,” in The Reach of Mind: Essays in Memory of Kurt Goldstein, ed. Marianne L. Simmel, 205 (New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1968) quoted in Roger Kimball, The Rape of the Masters: How Political Correctness Sabotages Art (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2004), 152.

Image captions


Artwork’s Title in Italics, Date, Author’s Name and Last Name, Medium/Media, Dimensions if Applicable.

DVDs and videocassettes

Scenes (individually accessible in DVDs) are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number.


7. “Crop Duster Attack,” North by Northwest, DVD, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000).