LEA Author Guidelines for Common Mistakes

Leonardo Electronic Almanac follows the Chicago Manual of Style for references. See: LEA Referencing Style

This is a section with the most common questions on punctuation, endnotes, captions, and etc. We will continuously update it in order to provide a place for authors where they can easily find exhaustive responses to their questions. Your compliance with the house style and the article conventions will facilitate a speedy publication. Please read this documentation attentively.


Chicago Style – The Chicago Manual describes both the “traditional” (American style) and the “alternative” British style. Chicago prefers the American style but says the British style may be appropriate for “some works of textual criticism.” LEA only uses the American style.


For the traditional style, Chicago says “Periods and commas precede closing quotation marks, whether double or single” (p. 309). “Colons and semicolons – unlike periods and commas – follow closing quotation marks; question marks and exclamation points following closing quotation marks unless they belong within the quoted matter” (p. 310).

LEA uses “double quotations marks (also called double inverted commas)” when quoting directly a source and ‘single quotation marks (also called single inverted commas)’ when stressing a particular meaning of a word or few words.

Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Quotation Marks and Referencing

Double inverted commas are used for quoting.

Single inverted commas are used for stress upon a particular word/phrase.

At the end of a sentence, there is a space between the punctuation mark and the reference number.


Please put a full stop at the end of the sentence, add a space, and then put the footnote number. [1]

“If you are quoting, please put a full stop before the quotation mark and then put a space and the footnote number.” [1]

“Please put the comma before the quotation mark if you are not finishing your sentence with that particular quote,” said LEA. [1]

“Also, please do not forget to put the book or art work titles in italics,” LEA writes in his book Punctuation is Important. [1]

General Rules on the Use of Quotation Marks

Rule 1

Periods and commas always go inside quotation marks, even inside single quotes.

The sign changed from “Walk,” to “Don’t Walk,” to “Walk” again within 30 seconds.

She said, “Hurry up.”

She said, “He said, ‘Hurry up.'”

Rule 2

The placement of question marks with quotes follows logic. If a question is in quotation marks, the question mark should be placed inside the quotation marks.

She asked, “Will you still be my friend?”

Do you agree with the saying, “All’s fair in love and war”?
Here the question is outside the quote.

NOTE: Only one ending punctuation mark is used with quotation marks. Also, the stronger punctuation mark wins. Therefore, no period after war is used.

Rule 3

When you have a question outside quoted material AND inside quoted material, use only one question mark and place it inside the quotation mark.

Did she say, “May I go?”

Rule 4

Use single quotation marks for quotes within quotes. Note that the period goes inside all quote marks.

He said, “Danea said, ‘Do not treat me that way.'” (Please note that there is no space between ‘ and “.)
Rule 5

Use quotation marks to set off a direct quotation only.

“When will you be here?” he asked.

He asked when you will be there.

Rule 6

Do not use quotation marks with quoted material that is more than three lines in length (60 words). These quotes will be indented by the designer. Please write before them the following in capitals: INDENT LARGE QUOTE at the end of the quote END LARGE QUOTE.

Rule 7

When you are quoting something that has a spelling or grammar mistake or presents material in a confusing way, insert the term sic in italics and enclose it in brackets. Sic means, “This is the way the original material was.”

She wrote, “I would rather die then [sic] be seen wearing the same outfit as my sister.”

Rule 8

Please note that ; and : are not placed at the end of the a phrase within single or double inverted commas.

She wrote, “I would prefer to go”; and that wasn’t really true.

Rule 9

Please note that titles of books, films, artworks, and exhibitions are in Italics in the text and the titles are capitalized.

She positively evaluated the exhibition End of the World in a Glass of Wine at Tate Modern.

Single quotation marks

LEA, since it follows the Chicago Manual of Style, discourages the use of ‘single quotation marks,’ nevertheless they may be necessary from time to time. Below is a short explanation of how to use them and their punctuation (credit to: ).

I’m writing in a very specialized field; should I use quotation marks for specialized terms?
In much specialist writing, including linguistics, philosophy, and theology, terms with particular meanings that are unique to that subject are often enclosed in single quotation marks:

The inner margins of a book are called the ‘gutter.’

Many people do not realize that ‘cultivar’ is synonymous with ‘clone.’

However, it is still important not to confuse your readers by including too many of these little punctuation marks. Inserting quotation marks may not be essential to your argument. The names of horticultural cultivars, however, should usually be enclosed in single quotation marks:

An example of an apple is ‘Jonathon,’ of a grape, ‘Chardonnay,’ and of the Gallica rose, ‘Rosa Munda.’


Endnotes and references, how does it work?

LEA uses endnotes and references at the end of the article. The style of the references is the Chicago Manual of Style. Please check the style for notes on the LEA’s site here.

Each note and reference should be given in a numerical number placed in your Word document in ascending order (e.g: from 1 to 1000) and should be in square brackets: [1] as shown in this example.

The punctuation is the following:

Each endnote and reference, according to the Chicago Manual of Style adopted by LEA, [1] should be in square brackets. [2] (Please note: the endnotes and references are placed after the punctuation and there is one space between the punctuation, e.g. comma and fullstop, space, and then the number of the endnote or reference.)

Below is an example list of endnotes and references.

The list is in numerical order and is a list with both notes and references.

[1] Jean Baudrillard, Simulacra and Simulation, trans. Sheila Faria Glaser (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1994), 98. (This is a reference. First mention.)
[2] Ibid. (Second mention, if it is exactly the same page, of the same text from same author. Ibid. means from “the same place.”)
[3] Ibid., 105. (If it is the same author and same text, following immediately after the previous quotation, but a different page is being referenced.)
[4] Paul Virilio, The Information Bomb, trans. Chris Turner (London: Verso, 2000), 15. (Reference of different author and different text.)
[5] Jean Baudrillard, Simulacra and Simulation, 134. (When quoting again from text already reference in [1] but there is another reference in between by a different author.)
[7] Ibid. (The sequence restarts.)
[8] Ibid., 135. (Different page same author, same text.)
[9] Ibid.
[10] The author believes that the relationship between Virilio and Baudrillard was one where the two collaborated closely, as per correspondence available to the author of this article and being presented as supporting element of the argument. (This is a note.)
[11] Jean Baudrillard, Screened Out, trans. Chris Turner (London: Verso, 2000), 10. (This is a different reference from the same author [1] but the text is different. The first time the text is used, full reference has to be given.)
[12] Ibid., 12.

Please be aware that after the endnotes LEA requires for your essays to have a bibliography, styled according to the Chicago Manual of Style. You can download a sample essay for LEA here: LEA_PaperMockUp


List in the body of the word document of your paper figure captions as you would like them to be placed. Download the sample paper here.  The figures’ captions have to include: author/s and/or group name, title (in italics), date, medium and dimensions. Explanation if necessary. Credit.

[Example 1] Michael Aurbach, Critical Theory’s Secret, 2010. Plexiglas and metal, 48.3 cm × 58.4 × 58.4 cm. Photograph by Bill Lafevor. © Michael Aurbach, 2010. Used with permission.

Artworks files should be named similarly, with the addition of the figure number. Also check for more information on all required material for your submission and file naming conventions: the article conventions.

Figure1_Aceti_DDF1.tif (this may be a drawing, graph, or photo)
Table1_Aceti_DDF1.tif (this consists of text and lines dividing that text or other graphic elements)

Please note: a figure is a line drawing, graph, or photo. A table is made of text and lines dividing that text.

Any artwork must have a caption. Please write captions including appropriate credit line for each Figure or Table. Insert the captions in the word document of your article, choosing a placement. PLEASE NOTE: although we will endeavor to respect your choice of placement, we cannot ensure it.

Please follow the instructions carefully. This will allow the designer and us to know which image is which in relation to the captions and to the placement. You being thorough with this process will avoid lengthy email exchanges and confusion that will delay the publication of the issue.


These are the sizes of your images, once your article has been approved for publication. DO NOT send large images with your first submission.

Please note it is your responsibility to clear copyright for all the images you are using.

A single full page image should be at least 18,5 cm (width) x 26 cm (height) and must be at 300 dpi minimum, .TIFF preferred (otherwise .JPG). A double spread (an image on two adjacent pages) should be at least 36,2 cm (width) x 26 cm (height) and must be 300 dpi minimum. LEA is a print and online publication and in order for your images to be printed they have to be at a high resolution.

If your essay is highly visual – we can review from 5 to 20 images images (we prefer to have a selection to choose from). Please agree with the editors how many to send. We will provide you a Dropbox folder where to share your material.


We are aware that this can be a painful process and we have tried to simplify it as much as we can, providing as much information as clearly as possible. We hope you will find this helpful. We kindly ask you to punctiliously follow the in house style and all other recommendation, since this will speed up the editing, proofreading and typesetting of your paper. Papers that will not comply and require extensive revisions, will be rejected.